(In the privacy of the home behavior can be far looser, and reports from the Daily Mail and WikiLeaks indicate that the ruling Saudi Royal family applies a different moral code to itself, indulging in parties, drugs and sex. [485] The official and dominant form of Islam in the kingdom—Wahhabism—arose in the central region of Najd, in the 18th century. Keep up with all the news, scores and highlights. [560] In practice, it is very difficult for a Saudi woman to obtain a judicial divorce. [58], In the Neolithic period, prominent cultures such as Al-Magar, whose center lay in modern-day southwestern Najd flourished. Golf Saudi CEO Majed Al-Sorour has hailed the launch of The Line, a zero-carbon urban-development project, as being the Kingdom’s most ambitious project to date. According to the World Bank, approximately 14.3 million people visited Saudi Arabia in 2012, making it the world's 19th-most-visited country. [167], Although corruption allegations have often been limited to broad undocumented accusations,[168] specific allegations were made in 2007, when it was claimed that the British defence contractor BAE Systems had paid Prince Bandar US$2 billion in bribes relating to the Al-Yamamah arms deal. Saudi Sign Language is the principal language of the deaf community, amounting to around 100,000 speakers. [225] Counting only the non-Muslim-majority countries, Saudi Arabia has paid for the construction of 1359 mosques, 210 Islamic centres, 202 colleges and 2000 schools. (The CIA Factbook estimated that as of 2013[update] foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia made up about 21% of the population. [88] Al-Muntafiq tribe later took over the region and came under Ottoman suzerainty. Saudi Arabia,[c] officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,[d] is a country in Western Asia constituting the vast majority of the Arabian Peninsula. [465], As Saudi population grows and oil export revenues stagnate, pressure for "Saudization" (the replacement of foreign workers with Saudis) has grown, and the Saudi government hopes to decrease the number of foreign nationals in the country. [122] From the 1990s, signs of discontent continued and included, in 2003 and 2004, a series of bombings and armed violence in Riyadh, Jeddah, Yanbu and Khobar. The king introduced a number of economic reforms aimed at reducing the country's reliance on oil revenue: limited deregulation, encouragement of foreign investment, and privatization. Saudi Arabia, along with other Gulf states, has expressed very little interest in changing the situation. [591] In 2 January 2020, Saudi Arabia announced three days Events-Only visa for expats living in United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Kuwait. In the early 7th century, Muhammad united the various tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious polity. [596] The school system is composed of elementary, intermediate, and secondary schools. [120] Many Saudis who did not support the Islamist terrorists were nevertheless deeply unhappy with the government's policies. The 334-square kilometre city will include a safari and a Six Flags theme park. Alternatively, leave this space blank and fill up the rest of the … [312][313] The SANG is not a reserve but a fully operational front-line force, and originated out of Ibn Saud's tribal military-religious force, the Ikhwan. [616] In 2016, 69.7% of the adult population was overweight and 35.5% was obese. Retrieved from "https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Gulfs_of_Saudi_Arabia?oldid=4569284" The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of mainly four distinct historical regions: Hejaz, Najd and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Ahsa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir). [171] Investigations by both US and UK authorities resulted, in 2010, in plea bargain agreements with the company, by which it paid $447 million in fines but did not admit to bribery. Critics accused the kingdom of "sportswashing", as it turned a blind eye to the unending violation of human rights in the country against women, minorities, rights advocates and critics. [588][589][590], On 27 September 2019, Saudi Arabia announced new changes to tourist visas for non-religious visits, allowing citizens of 49 countries to apply for E-Visa for 90 days. [299] Similarly, President of Syria Bashar al-Assad noted that the sources of the extreme ideology of the terrorist organization ISIS and other such salafist extremist groups are the Wahabbism that has been supported by the royal family of Saudi Arabia. In Riyadh the following month King Salman met the head of the Vatican's Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. [498], "Fierce religious resistance" had to be overcome to permit such innovations as paper money (in 1951), female education (1964), and television (1965) and the abolition of slavery (1962). With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes. [598] Also, the QS World University Rankings has ranked 19 Saudi universities among the top 100 Arab institutions, on its 13th edition. Saudi Arabia has had five-year "Development Plans" since 1970. [129][130], Although male-only municipal elections were held on 29 September 2011,[131][132] Abdullah allowed women to vote and be elected in the 2015 municipal elections, and also to be nominated to the Shura Council. One journalist states that 51% of the Saudi population is under the age of 25: The Economist magazine lists an estimated nine million: Willem Adriaan Veenhoven and Winifred Crum Ewing (1976). Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in 2000, the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom. [citation needed], Foreign Muslims[463] who have resided in the kingdom for ten years may apply for Saudi citizenship. [597] Classes are segregated by sex. Turkish officials are highly skeptical of Khashoggi being murdered inside the consulate; this has strained the already suffering Saudi Arabia–Turkey relations. The facility raised concerns among the US and allied officials about Saudi nuclear energy plans and the country’s option of developing nuclear weapon. As stated by Ozgur Unluhisarcikli, director of the German Marshall Fund's Ankara office "Turkey is maintaining a very delicate balance in its relations with Saudi Arabia. [205], Retaliatory punishments, or Qisas, are practised: for instance, an eye can be surgically removed at the insistence of a victim who lost his own eye. Al-Magar could be considered as a "Neolithic Revolution" in human knowledge and handicraft skills. Its modern existence, however, is attributable to it being effectively Abdullah's private army since the 1960s and, unlike the rest of the armed forces, is independent of the Ministry of Defense and Aviation. "[603], The religious sector of the Saudi national curriculum was examined in a 2006 report by Freedom House which concluded that "the Saudi public school religious curriculum continues to propagate an ideology of hate toward the 'unbeliever', that is, Christians, Jews, Shiites, Sufis, Sunni Muslims who do not follow Wahhabi doctrine, Hindus, atheists and others". Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family. The 647,500 km2 (250,001 sq mi) Rub' al Khali ("Empty Quarter") in the southeastern part of the country is the world's largest contiguous sand desert. About 50% of drinking water comes from desalination, 40% from the mining of non-renewable groundwater and 10% from surface water, especially in the mountainous southwest of the country. Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom; the U.S. State Department considers Saudi Arabian government's discrimination against women a "significant problem" in Saudi Arabia and notes that women have few political rights due to the government's discriminatory policies. [442][443] Estimates of the Sunni population of Saudi Arabia range between 75% and 90%, with the remaining 10–25% being Shia Muslim. [5] The airline was planning to start operation in 2015 but encountered regulatory delays with Saudi Arabia’s General Authority of Civil Aviation. Welcome to SaudiGulf airlines, The newest all-inclusive airlines in Saudi Arabia. ", WikiLeaks Shows a Saudi Obsession With Iran, "Saudi Arabia urges US attack on Iran to stop nuclear programme", "Obama advised Netanyahu of Iran talks in September", "Iran nuclear deal: Saudi Arabia and Gulf react with caution", "Insight: Saudis brace for 'nightmare' of U.S.-Iran rapprochement", "US, Saudi drifting apart despite Obama visit", "Saudi Arabian troops enter Bahrain as regime asks for help to quell uprising", U.S. They are funding something else, which may down the road lead to individuals being radicalised and becoming fodder for terrorism," Patey said. 15 of the 19 terrorists involved in September 11 attacks in New York City, Washington, D.C., and near Shanksville, Pennsylvania were Saudi nationals. Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula and is the largest country in area in the Middle East—but 95 percent of the land is desert, Mountains running parallel to the Red Sea slope down to plains along the Persian Gulf (called Arabian Gulf by Arab states), Below the arid landscape, oil has made this desert kingdom one of the wealthiest nations in the world. Now check-in directly for Saudi Gulf flight from the comfort of your home/office. The film was based on the 2018 murder of Jamal Khashoggi by Saudi authorities. As in other Arab countries of the Arabian Peninsula, machbūs (kabsa), a rice dish with lamb, chicken, fish or shrimp, is among the national dishes as well as the dish mandi (food). According to Turkish government sources there is audio and video evidence for him having been murdered and dismembered inside the consulate. More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. [128] On 18 March the same year, King Abdullah announced a package of $93 billion, which included 500,000 new homes to a cost of $67 billion, in addition to creating 60,000 new security jobs. Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the Al Saud contested control of the interior of what was to become Saudi Arabia with another Arabian ruling family, the Al Rashid, who ruled the Emirate of Jabal Shammar. [572], On 25 September 2011, King Abdullah announced that Saudi women would gain the right to vote (and to be candidates) in municipal elections, provided that a male guardian grants permission. [17][18][19][20][21], From the 10th century to the early 20th century, Mecca and Medina were under the control of a local Arab ruler known as the Sharif of Mecca, but at most times the Sharif owed allegiance to the ruler of one of the major Islamic empires based in Baghdad, Cairo or Istanbul. "[80], In 1995, Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke, and the Crown Prince, Abdullah, assumed the role of de facto regent, taking on the day-to-day running of the country. [331] He was later released due to intervention by the British government. The Saudi Arabia national football team is considered as one of Asia's most successful national teams, having reached a joint record 6 AFC Asian Cup finals, winning three of those finals (1984, 1988, and 1996) and having qualified for the World Cup four consecutive times ever since debuting at the 1994 tournament. [573] Women were allowed to vote and be candidates in the 12 December 2015 municipal elections. [530] During the Islamic revival movement in the 1980s, and as a political response to an increase in Islamist activism including the 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, the government closed all cinemas and theaters. (Priority is given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields,[464] and exception made for Palestinians who are excluded unless married to a Saudi national, because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship.) [117], King Khalid died of a heart attack in June 1982. [388], The oil industry constitutes about 45% of Saudi Arabia's nominal gross domestic product, compared with 40% from the private sector (see below). [434][435], The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic. [561], The average age at first marriage among Saudi females is 25 years in Saudi Arabia,[562] with child marriage no longer common. [80], After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories. [59] The culture is characterized as being one of the world's first to involve the widespread domestication of animals, particularly the horse, during the Neolithic period. [224] The two main allegations are that, by its nature, Wahhabism encourages intolerance and promotes terrorism. However, with King Abdullah's reforms from 2005, some cinemas have re-opened,[531] including one in KAUST. Coffee, served in the Arabic style, is the traditional beverage but tea and various fruit juices are popular as well. Diplomat Backed Continuing Support for Saudi War in Yemen Over Objections of Staff", "Saudis must lift Yemen blockade or 'untold' thousands will die, UN agencies warn", "The Photos the U.S. and Saudi Arabia Don't Want You to See", "In blocking arms to Yemen, Saudi Arabia squeezes a starving population", "US calls for ceasefire in Yemen within 30 days, sparking hopes of diplomatic breakthrough", "Showtime Documentary 'Kingdom of Silence' To Premiere On Two-Year Anniversary Of Jamal Khashoggi Murder", "Briarcliff Acquires U.S. On 'The Dissident' & Releases Trailer; Late 2020 Release To Commemorate 2nd Anniversary Of Jamal Khashoggi Murder In Saudi Consulate", "UK piles pressure on Saudi Arabia over Khashoggi killing", "Jeremy Hunt and Boris Johnson accused of 'central role' in arming Saudi Arabia as UK's relationship with Riyadh reaches crossroads", "Jeremy Hunt's bid for prime minister is being funded by a close ally of Saudi prince Mohammed Bin Salman", "Saudi Arabia signs cooperation deals with China on nuclear energy", "Saudi Arabia, With China's Help, Expands Its Nuclear Program", "Pompeo pressed on claims China is helping build Saudi uranium facility", "Revealed: Saudi Arabia may have enough uranium ore to produce nuclear fuel", "Saudi Arabia's Atomic Ambition Is Being Fueled by a UN Watchdog", "Maliki: Saudi and Qatar at war against Iraq", "Syria conflict: BBC exclusive interview with President Bashar al-Assad" with Jeremy Bowen, "WikiLeaks cables portray Saudi Arabia as a cash machine for terrorists", Why Obama doesn't want 9/11 families suing Saudi Arabia, "Saudi Arabia boosting extremism in Europe, says former ambassador", "About this Collection | Country Studies | Digital Collections | Library of Congress", "Saudis lead Middle East military spending", "Trends in International Arms Transfer, 2014", Saudi, UAE Influence Grows With Purchases, "Human rights groups ask Trudeau to end 'immoral' arms deal with Saudi Arabia", EU Parliament – unprecedented call arms embargo against Saudi Arabia, "Yemen civil war: Poll shows most Britons oppose Saudi Arabia arms sales, as MPs call emergency debate", "European Parliament passes resolution urging arms embargo on Saudi Arabia", "Germany plans to suspend arms sales to Saudis; other European countries press for more information on Khashoggi's killing", "Canada doubles weapons sales to Saudi Arabia despite moratorium", "Karl Andree case: David Cameron to write to Saudi government", "Briton Karl Andree jailed in Saudi Arabia back home", "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death", "Dispatches: Obama Refuses to Talk Human Rights in Saudi Arabia", "USCIRF Urges President: Raise Religious Freedom on Saudi Trip", "Initiatives and Actions to Combat Terrorism", "Saudi Arabia's brutal punishment of a dissident", "Saudi Arabia court gives death penalty to man who renounced his Muslim faith", UK helped Saudi Arabia get UN human rights role through 'secret deal' to exchange votes, leaked documents suggest, "Saudi execution of Shia cleric sparks outrage in Middle East", Nobel laureates urge Saudi king to halt 14 executions, "Sen. Corker: Everything points to Saudis being responsible for missing journalist", Turkish officials have audio and video evidence that shows missing Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi was killed inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey has 'shocking' audio and visual evidence of Saudi journalist's killing, "Saudi Arabia scraps execution for those who committed crimes as minors: Commission", "UN Chief's 'List of Shame' Drops Saudi-Led Coalition", "Saudi Arabia fails to join UN human rights council but Russia and China elected", "The Tourists Guide To The 10 Amazing Volcanoes in Saudi Arabia", "VOLCANIC ARABIA: It started with tremors", "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification", "Snow City: Saudi Arabia's Tabuk region dresses in white to mesmerize people", "VIDEO: Do you know there are 1,300 islands in Saudi Arabia? [173] Saudi Arabia has undergone a process of political and social reform, such as to increase public transparency and good governance. In 2018, superstars like John Cena, Kevin Owens and Daniel Bryan refused to fly to Saudi, over the Kingdom's declining human rights records citing Jamal Khashoggi's assassination. [227] In September 2016, the Congress passed the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act that would allow relatives of victims of the 11 September attacks to sue Saudi Arabia for its government's alleged role in the attacks. [178] The pact, which persists to this day,[187] is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikh's authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating Wahhabi doctrine. Bent u hier via een pagina in Wikipedia terechtgekomen? Women's clothes are often decorated with tribal motifs, coins, sequins, metallic thread, and appliques. [180], The primary source of law is the Islamic Sharia derived from the teachings of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (the traditions of the Prophet). There were several anti-government uprisings in the region such as the 1979 Qatif Uprising. [387], The religious police, known as the mutawa, impose many restrictions on women in public in Saudi Arabia. Tribal identity remains strong and, outside of the royal family, political influence is frequently determined by tribal affiliation, with tribal sheikhs maintaining a considerable degree of influence over local and national events. [90] Their rule extended from Iraq to Oman at its height and they too came under Ottoman suzerainty. Women were not allowed to take part in the poll. The enforcement of the anti-corruption laws is selective and public officials engage in corruption with impunity. From 2003 to 2013, "several key services" were privatized—municipal water supply, electricity, telecommunications—and parts of education and health care, traffic control and car accident reporting were also privatized. [426] Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia. A number of prominent Saudi Arabian princes, government ministers, and businesspeople, including Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, were arrested in Saudi Arabia in November 2017. [500] Public support for the traditional political/religious structure of the kingdom is so strong that one researcher interviewing Saudis found virtually no support for reforms to secularize the state. SaudiGulf Airlines was established in 2013 by Abdel Hadi Abdullah Al-Qahtani & Sons Group of Companies, a Saudi consortium of privately owned businesses. [604] As a consequence, Saudi youth "generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs" according to the CIA. This was after he performed a concert attended by more than 10,000 people in the heritage site north-west of Riyadh. [138] No political parties or national elections are permitted. In addition, students are required to take six science subjects which are Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geology and Computer. [304] The leaked US Department of State memo, dated 17 August 2014, says that "governments of Qatar and Saudi Arabia...are providing clandestine financial and logistic support to ISIS and other radical groups in the region. [486] The Saudi government has often been viewed as an active oppressor of Shia Muslims because of the funding of the Wahhabi ideology which denounces the Shia faith. [507][506] No churches, temples or other non-Muslim houses of worship are permitted in the country. [275], Saudi Arabia has been seen as a moderating influence in the Arab–Israeli conflict, periodically putting forward a peace plan between Israel and the Palestinians and condemning Hezbollah. The predominantly loose and flowing, but covering, garments are suited to Saudi Arabia's desert climate. [353] The CIA World Factbook estimates 2,149,690 km2 (830,000 sq mi) and lists Saudi Arabia as the world's 13th-largest state. 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